Thursday, 21 December 2017

ACTIVITY PROFILE BETWEEN WINNERS AND LOSERS IN SILAT OLAHRAGA IN MALE CLASS C 60KG, SEA GAMES 2015.

Abstract
The aim of this study is focusing on silat techniques that occur during matches in Silat Olahraga male class C competition in 28th SEA Games 2015. Four matches were notated that are men’s quarterfinals Class C 60kg (Laos vs Philippines), men’s quarterfinals Class C 60kg (Vietnam vs Singapore), men’s final Class C 60kg (Vietnam vs Thailand) and men’s semi-final Class C 60kg (Vietnam vs Laos). This study focusing on specific skills uses by both players during games that are kick, punch, topple and sweep. Therefore, a total of 13 performance indicators were selected as the variables order to make sure that the skills produced during flight time were notated.
Introduction
Silat is a term used to describe the martial arts forms practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago. It is traditionally practiced in Malaysia, Southern Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Brunei and Philippines. Silat is a combative art of Malay fighting arts. Aziz, Tan, and Teh (2002) stated that pencak silat is divide by two categories which are silat olahraga and silat seni (contact and artistic). Olahraga means the ability for silat exponents to perform their silat techniques in combat with striking and defensive actions such as punching, kicking, throwing, catching, parrying blocking and the other skill related to the silat techniques (Shapie, M. N. M. and Elias, 2016).
In silat olahraga, the basic commands are existed, target area to attack the opponent, time for each match and the scoring point for each of the area that attacked. Those are the standardized rules in silat olahraga. For the basic commands, the ‘wasit’ which is referee will said the command 'Sedia', meaning 'ready'. Then, he will shout 'Mulai', meaning 'begin'. Immediately the 'gong' will be struck. When the wasit wants to stop the fight, he will shout 'Berhenti', meaning 'stop'.
During fighting, fighters are allowed to attack any parts of body but they do not allowed to attack groin and the neck above. No elbowing or knee strikes are allowed. If one hits the body padding or the opponent's back, fighter get 1 point. A punch also scores 1 point and a kick will score 2 points. Then, a takedown will earn 3 points. A takedown is when the opponent falls regardless what technique the exponent use to take the opponent down. If the fighters use the combination of silat techniques such as block and counterattack with punch in, he will earn more point. Fighters will be trying to perform as good as possible to achieve the highest score and a better performance. As an athlete who competed in the competition, the situation is influenced by various factors such as physical, technical, tactical and psychological (Latifah, Rusdiana, Ugelta, Budiman, & Karmini, 2017).
In a conclusion, performance indicator is a type of performance measurement. Performance measurement is the process of collecting, analysing and reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, group, organization, system or component. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find out the silat techniques performed by the fighters during matches in Silat Olahraga male class C competition in 28th SEA Games 2015.
Materials and method
The data will be analyzed based on the videos Pencak Silat Tanding matches Men’s Semi-final Class C 60kg (Vietnam vs Laos), Men’s Quarterfinals Class C 60kg (Vietnam vs Singapore), Men’s Final Class C 60kg (Vietnam vs Thailand) and Men’s Quarterfinals Class C 60kg (Laos vs Philippines). Besides that the video will be repeated and play in slow motion to identify the action or skills made by exponents to get the accurate analyses (Shapie, M. M., Oliver, O’Donoghue, & Tong, 2013). Four skills which are punching, kicking, toppling and sweeping are highlighted during notating process. Then, all the skills were categorized into three indicators that are hit target, miss opponent and hit elsewhere. 
Motion categories
Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 13 categories and were defined as follows:
i.            Punch:
The punch ‘tumbuk’ attack is done by a hand with closed fist hitting the target. In silat, punching is often used to fight the opponent. It can be a straight punch ‘tumbuk lurus’ or uppercut ‘sauk’ to exponent body’s (Anuar, 1992).
ii.            Kick:
The kick ‘tendang’ or ‘terajang’ is an ataacking movement which is performed with one leg or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be aimed at any target. It can be front kick ‘tendang depan’, side kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘ tendang lengkar’(Anuar, 1992).
iii.            Block:
The blocking movements begin with the posture position ‘sikap pasang’: the exponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs with the purpose to block off or striking back at any attck (Anuar, 1992).
iv.            Catch:
The catch ‘tangkapan’ is done by using the hand to obstruct the opponent from carrying out an attack. The silat exponent is able to prevent himself from being attacked by pointing the attack which he has caught to another direction. A catch which twists or drags the opponent is forbidden. Also, a catch which could break the part which is being held such as the leg and waist is also forbidden. These regulations exit to protect the silat exponent’s (Anuar, 1992).
v.            Topple:
There are various ways of toppling down one’s opponent. For example, a silat exponent ‘pesilat’ can either push, shove the opponent’s back leg from the bad or from the side, shove, hit, kick, strike or punch to make the opponent lose his balance. Every falls is considered valid as long as the sila exponent topples his opponent down without wresting or he is able to overpower the opponent whom he has brought down (Anuar, 1992).
vi.            Sweep:
Swiping ‘sapuan’ involves attacking an opponent’s leg which is on the ground to unstable him and brings down to the ground. A silat exponent can perform this attacking movement either with his right or left leg. Hence, front sweep ‘sapuan depan’ is done by swinging the leg to the front to push an opponent’s leg, while back sweep ‘sapuan belakang’ is carried out by swinging the leg backward to hit the back leg (Anuar, 1992).
vii.            Evade/Dodge:
The evade ‘elakan’ technique is carried out by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique does not require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. They are many ways of carrying out his defensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’ ducking ‘susup’ and etc. (Anuar, 1992).
viii.            Self-Release:
Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent (Anuar, 1993).
ix.            Block and Punch:
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent (Shapie, Oliver, O’Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
x.            Block and Kick:
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent (Shapie et al., 2013).
xi.            Block and Sweep:
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent (Shapie et al., 2013).
xii.            Fake Punch:
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break his opponent’s defensive posture (Shapie et al., 2013).
xiii.            Fake Kick:
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break his opponent defensive posture (Shapie et al., 2013).
Statistical analysis
The observation generated data will be frequency counted. Mean and standard deviation (SD) for all the marker has been computed to locate the measurable factors that separated winning and losing group. Statistical analysis was conducted by using statistical package for social scientist (SPSS).
Results
Tables below showed the result of this study. First table all 14 motion categories that combine the winner and loser group in one match. Table two showed the specific skills that exponents used such as blocking, kicking, punching and topple. For the last table, it shows the mean and standard deviation for both groups. Hit target, miss opponent and hit elsewhere are the outcomes that will be used for the observation of the video matches.

The first match is Men’s Quarterfinals Class C 60kg, Vietnam (Red) vs Singapore (Blue). 

Actions
Outcome Indicators
Vietnam (Red)
Singapore (Blue)
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else
where
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else where
Block
2
2

1
2

Block & Kick
3





Block &Punch






Block &
Sweep



1


Kick
5
3
1
4
10
3
Fake Kick



1


Punch
1



3

Fake Punch






Catch
2
1

5
1

Dodge
2


1


Topple
1
1

2
2

Sweep
5
1

3
1

Self-Release
3


1


Others
17
17
Total
24
8
1
19
19
3

Frequency Table:

Exponent
Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
Total
Vietnam (Red)
1
9
2
6
18
Singapore (Blue)
3
17
4
4
28


Statistics

Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
N
Valid
4
26
6
10
Missing
22
0
20
16
Mean
1.75
1.65
1.67
1.4
Std. Error of Mean
0.25
0.095
0.211
0.163
Std. Deviation
0.5
0.485
0.516
0.516


Vietnam
Singapore
N
Valid
18
26
Missing
8
0
Mean
2.72
2.42
Std. Error of Mean
0.24
0.159
Std. Deviation
1.018
0.809























The second match is Men’s Quarterfinals Class C 60kg, Laos (Red) vs Philippines (Blue).

Actions
Outcome Indicators
Laos (Red)
Philippines (Blue)
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else
where
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else
where
Block
4
1
4
5
5
2
Block & Kick






Block & Punch






Block & Sweep






Kick
6
4
8
6
1
10
Fake Kick
1


1


Punch
6
1
2
2
1
3
Fake Punch
2




1
Catch
9
3

5
6
6
Dodge
2


4
2
1
Topple
3
2
1
1
2
1
Sweep

2
2

1
1
Self-Release

1

1
2

Others
17
17
Total
50
14
17
35
20
25

Exponent
Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
Total
Laos (Red)
9
18
6
4
37
Philippines (Blue)
6
17
4
2
29

Statistics


Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
 N
Valid
15
35
10
6

Missing
20
0
25
29
Mean

1.4
1.49
1.4
1.33
Std. Error of Mean
0.131
0.086
0.163
0.211
Std. Deviation
0.507
0.507
0.516
0.516



Laos
Philippines
N
Valid
37
29

Missing
0
8
Mean

2.14
2.07
Std. Error of Mean
0.151
0.148
Std. Deviation
0.918
0.799

The third match is Men’s Semi-final Class C 60kg, Vietnam (Blue) vs Laos (Red).  

Actions
Outcome Indicators
Laos (Red)
Vietnam (Blue)
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else
where
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else where
Block
1





Block & Kick




1

Block & Punch






Block & Sweep






Kick
4
7
12
8
1
3
Fake Kick
3
1




Punch
5
4

5
1
2
Fake Punch
5
4

2


Catch
3


1


Dodge






Topple
1
2
1
4


Sweep
1
1
1
3
2

Self-Release






Others
17
17
Total
40
17
13
40
8
5

Exponent
Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
Total
Laos (Red)
9
21
4
3
37
Vietnam (Blue)
8
12
4
5
29

Statistics 


Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
   N
Valid
17
33
8
8

Missing
18
2
27
27
Mean

1.47
1.36
1.5
1.63
 Std. Error of Mean
0.125
0.085
0.189
0.183
Std. Deviation
0.514
0.489
0.535
0.518



Laos
Vietnam
N
Valid
37
29

Missing
0
8
Mean

2.03
2.21
Std. Error of Mean
0.137
0.195
Std. Deviation
0.833
1.048

The fourth match is Men’s Final Class C 60kg, Vietnam (Red) vs Thailand (Blue).

Actions
Outcome Indicators
Vietnam (Red)
Thailand (Blue)
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else where
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Hit Else
where
Block






Block & Kick






Block & Punch






Block & Sweep






Kick
7
5
3
6
2
3
Fake Kick
1


2


Punch
8

2
7

4
Fake Punch
1


1


Catch
1
2

2


Dodge






Topple
2
1



3
Sweep

5
1

3

Self-Release






Others
13
13
Total
33
14
6
31
5
10

Exponent
Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
Total
Vietnam (Red)
10
15
3
6
34
Thailand (Blue)
11
11
3
3
28

Statistics 


Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
N
Valid
21
26
6
9

Missing
14
9
29
26
Mean

1.52
1.42
1.5
1.33
Std. Error of Mean
0.112
0.099
0.224
0.167
Std. Deviation
0.512
0.504
0.548
0.5



Vietnam
Thailand
N
Valid
34
28

Missing
3
9
Mean

2.15
1.93
Std. Error of Mean
0.18
0.185
Std. Deviation
1.048
0.979























Discussion
According to the result shown, Vietnam has won two times when facing with Singapore in quarterfinals and Laos in semifinal, meanwhile quarterfinals between Laos and Philippines won by Laos. At final, Thailand won after Vietnam had been disqualified during match.
Based on the data on first match, Vietnam vs Singapore, both fighters were preferred to use kicking skill rather than punching. But, Singapore missed kicked more than hit target, while Vietnam hit target whenever the exponent produces movement. Also, Vietnam used sweep skill when fighting that gain more point to Vietnam. Furthermore, Singapore do lot of mistakes and most of the attacked were missed that cause less point earned. Thus, competitor must wise to make strategy plan and technique during match (Wahab, 1989).
In second match Laos vs Philippines, Laos won the game. From the observation, both fighters are aggressively attacked each other. Variety of silat skills were performed by both parties. Laos win the game because most of the attacked hit the target that cause Laos to earn more points than Philippines. The frequency of punch is 9, kick is 18, topple is 6 and sweep is 4. This shows that Philippines defensive is weak because the fighter unable to block the attacked from Laos especially punches.
Next, third match Vietnam vs Laos, Laos lose the match. What can I observed from this match is Vietnam do more attacking than Laos resulting Vietnam win the game. Vietnam kicking is more accurate because most of the kick hit the target meanwhile, Laos lost the accuracy because 12 kick are hit elsewhere and 7 miss opponent. Sweep skill by Vietnam also good because out of 5, 3 are successful sweep. This shows that the reaction time of Laos is quite slow during the match.
Last match Vietnam vs Thailand, won by Thailand. during this match, Vietnam is more actively attacked Thailand but Vietnam disqualified. Thailand was more calmly while fighting and has a good defensive skill by able to block successfully from Vietnam. Thailand has a speed and accuracy because most of the attacked hit the target and Vietnam unable to block and defend itself. Thus, it resulting more points earned by Thailand.
For overall videos notated fighters mostly uses kicking and punching to get more points during matches. To win, the fighter must have a good strength and endurance, expertise in all possible silat skills and able to manipulate the opponents by confusing and attacking them at the same time. Speed, accuracy and good reaction time are the advantages to those who owned it.  A good fighter must have a tactics, know how and when to defense and attacked in order to win. Competitor must wise to make strategy plan and technique during match (Wahab, 1989).
Conclusion
The conclusion of this study is fighters that attacked by using variety of skill can collect more points thus, have a big opportunity to win. Kicking and punching are desirable choices that most of the ‘pesilat’ use during match. However, fighters need to improve their accuracy when attacking especially when kicking. Reaction times also need to be improves in order to be good during defensing. Not to forget, fitness level such as muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, power, agility, speeds are important factors to enhance their performance level. The less mistakes they make, the better result they will get.
As for recommendation, it is good if fighters are aware about the importance of reaction time and speed of movement in the training. It is also recommended for future studies to find out the needed of sweep and topple influencing winning and losing.

 References
The Silat Olahraga. (2013, May 17). Retrieved Dec 2, 2017, from Malay Martial Arts-Silat: https://malaymartialarts-silat.blogspot.my/2013/05/the-silat-olahraga.html

Match Regulations. (n.d.). Retrieved 30 Nov, 2017, from EventSilat.com Official Community: http://community.eventsilat.com/index.php/en/silat-2/match-regulation/

Mohamad Mohamed Shapie 1, J. O. (2013-12-30). Development of new field-based tests of kick and movement speed in youth martial arts. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts.

http://ezinearticles.com/?Three-Fighting-Secrets-To-Topple-Down-Your-Opponent-Easily-In-Silat Olahraga-Match&id=5536517

Anuar, A. W. (1993). Silat Olahraga (2nd edn.). The art, technique and regulations.

Latifah, E., Rusdiana, A., Ugelta, S., Budiman, D., & Karmini, M. (2017). Contribution of Intelligence and Emotional Qoutients with Performance Athletes Pencak Silat. Paper presented at the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering.

Shapie, M. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., & Tong, R. (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts., 1(2), 81-86.

Shapie, M. N. M. (2011). Influence of Age and Maturation on Fitness Development, Trainability And Competitive Performance In Youth Silat. Cardiff Metropolitan University. 

Shapie, M. N. M., & Elias, M. S. (2015). Seni Silat Malaysia: The Malay Arts of Self-Defence. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Health and Martial Arts in                Interdisciplinary Approach, HMA 2015.

Shapie, M. N. M., & Elias, M. S. (2016). Silat: The curriculum of Seni Silat Malaysia. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 11(2s), 122-125.

Shapie, M. N. M., Zenal, Z., Parnabas, V., & Abdullah, N. M. (2016). The Correlation between Leadership Coaching Style and Satisfaction among University Silat Olahraga   Athletes. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 3(16), 34-39.

Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class C Quaterfinals Vietnam vs Sin (Day 6); 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at March 19, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SokrF52rGxg

Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class C Quarterfinals Laos vs Philippines (Day 6); 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at March 19, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLTGxEEipCQ

Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class C Semi-finals Vietnam vs Laos (Day 8); 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at March 19, 2017 from  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3o4IIQLkMZA

Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class C Finals Vietnam vs Thailand (Day 9), 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at March 19, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-mBeT3D87Y



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